GENES AND TERMINOLOGY
Biology’s central dogma describes the information flow in a biological system. The information is stored inside the DNA. DNA polymerase is responsible for replicating this information. RNA polymerase transcribes the encoded information into RNA, before it can be translated into a protein with the help of a ribosome.
DNA consists of a sugar phosphate backbone (the bone of the helix) and different base pairs (adenine, thymine, guanine & cytosine: ATGC). It’s remarkable that one base can only bind to one other type of base. That means that every information is double encoded. Furthermore G-C bonds are stronger than A-T bonds, because it consists of 3 hydrogen bonds in opposit to 2 hydrogen bonds.
The process for exponential amplification of DNA is called PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction).